how did the battle of thermopylae affect greece

Darius had died in 485 B.C. The battle of Thermopylae, and particularly the Spartans' role in it, soon acquired mythical status amongst the Greeks. Persia, with the largest empire in the world, was vastly superior in men and resources and now these would be fully utilised for a full-scale attack. The pass at Thermopylae was a superb place to withstand an attack. The battle would take on mythical status amongst the Greeks, but in reality it was merely the opening overture of a long war with several other battles making up the principal acts. The relatively small size of the defending force has been explained as a reluctance by some Greek city-states to commit troops so far north, and/or due to religious motives, for it was the period of the sacred games at Olympia and the most important Spartan religious festival, the Karneia, and no fighting was permitted during these events. But the Battle of Thermopylae more importantly defended the very future of the modern world. Hornblower, Simon & Spawforth, Antony & Eidinow, Esther. Greece was about to face its greatest ever threat, and even the oracle at Delphi ominously advised the Athenians to ‘fly to the world’s end’. Their attempt to stop Xerxes invasion had failed, and many were thrown into despair. 1 Answer. A soldier ran all the way back to Athens bring the news that Athens had won. Leonidas moved his troops to the widest part of the pass to utilise all of his men at once, and in the ensuing clash the Spartan king was killed. Wealth and resources seem an unlikely motive; other more plausible suggestions include the need to increase the prestige of the king at home or to quell once and for all a collection of potentially troublesome rebel states on the western border of the empire. Winter halted the land campaign, though, and at Salamis the Greek fleet manoeuvred the Persians into shallow waters and won a resounding victory. Thermopylae 480 BC: Last stand of the 300, Gates of Fire: An Epic Novel of the Battle of Thermopylae, Thermopylae: The Battle That Changed the World. Kathleen Lohnes was an editorial intern at Encyclopaedia Britannica in 2017 and 2018. However, on the second night a Greek traitor guided the best Persian troops around the pass behind the Greek army. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Depots of equipment and supplies were laid, a canal dug at Chalkidike, and boat bridges built across the Hellespont to facilitate the movement of troops. As Herodotus claims in his account of the battle in book VII of The Histories, the Oracle at Delphi had been proved right when she proclaimed that either Sparta or one of her kings must fall. Lv 4. The Persian forces also included the Immortals, an elite force of 10,000 who were probably better protected with armour and armed with spears. This is Sparta: Fierce warriors of the ancient world - Craig Zimmer. Therefore, the Spartans, widely credited as being the best fighters in Greece and the only polis with a professional army, contributed only a small advance force of 300 hoplites (from an estimated 8,000 available) to the Greek defensive force, these few being chosen from men with male heirs. Ultimately the Persians took control of the pass, but the heroic defeat of Leonidas would assume legendary proportions for later generations of Greeks, and within a year the Persian invasion would be repulsed at the battles of Salamis and Plataea. 1 decade ago. Despite being greatly inferior in numbers, the Greeks held the narrow pass for three days with Spartan king Leonidas fighting a last-ditch defence with a small force of Spartans and other Greek hoplites. News of this defeat reached the troops at Artemisium, and Greek forces there retreated as well. In 480 bce Xerxes invaded Greece as a continuation of Darius’s original plan. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. However, as the majority of the Greek army retreated, Leonidas, his 300 bodyguards, some helots (people enslaved by the Spartans), and 1,100 Boeotians remained behind, supposedly because retreating would defy Spartan law and custom. Ephialtes, son of Eurydemos, a local shepherd from Trachis, seeking reward from Xerxes, informed the Persians of an alternative route --the Anopaia path-- which would allow them to avoid the majority of the enemy forces and attack their southern flank. The Greek tactic of feigning a disorganised retreat and then turning on the enemy in the phalanx formation also worked well, lessening the threat from Persian arrows and perhaps the hoplites surprised the Persians with their disciplined mobility, a benefit of being a professionally trained army. As Simonedes’ epitaph at the site of the fallen stated: ‘Go tell the Spartans, you who read: We took their orders and here lie dead’. Xerxes returned home to his palace at Sousa and left the gifted general Mardonius in charge of the invasion. What effect did the Greek defeat of the Persians in the Persian Wars have on Greek ... A Greek betrayed the Spartans and showed the Persians a way behind ... the Spartans were all killed by arrows. Although the Persian tactic of rapidly firing vast numbers of arrows into the enemy must have been an awesome sight, the lightness of the arrows meant that they were largely ineffective against the bronze-armoured hoplites. By the first years of the 5th century BCE, the Persian Achaemenid Empire, under the rule of Darius I (r. 522-486 BCE), was already expanding into mainland Europe and had subjugated Thrace and Macedonia. The Battle of Thermopylae had an interesting prelude along with an intriguing series of events, and had a huge effect on Second Persian Invasion. Answer Save. The Ionians rebelled against the Persian rule. Thermopylae is a mountain pass near the sea in northern Greece which was the site of several battles in antiquity, the most famous being that between Persians and Greeks in August 480 BCE. The Greeks sent a no-nonsense reply by executing the envoys, and Athens and Sparta promised to form an alliance for the defence of Greece. How did the Battle of Thermopylae end? She received her bachelor’s degree in philosophy and creative writing in 2020 at the University of Iowa. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. They held their ground against the Persians but were quickly defeated by the vast enemy army, and many (if not all; sources differ) were killed, including Leonidas. Hope this answers your question. After initial Persian victories, the Persians were eventually defeated, both at sea and on land. Corrections? His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Sport Man. Brainly User Brainly User 10/14/2020 History College How did the Persians defeat the Greek army at Thermopylae? The Persian victory at Thermopylae allowed for Xerxes’ passage into southern Greece, which expanded the Persian empire even further. In 486 BCE, Xerxes I (r. 486-465 BCE) became king upon the death of Darius and massive preparations for invasion were made. 1 See answer User is waiting for … The second day followed the pattern of the first, and the Greek forces still held the pass. The mighty Persian empire invades the free city states of Greece. Just why Greece was coveted by Persia is unclear. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 16 Apr 2013. Leonidas had stationed the contingent of Phokian troops to guard this vital point but they, thinking themselves the primary target of this new development, withdrew to a higher defensive position when the Immortals attacked. The Battle … 300. After the battle, Xerxes ordered that Leonidas’ head be put on a stake and displayed at the battlefield. Greco-Persian Wars, also called Persian Wars, (492–449 bce), a series of wars fought by Greek states and Persia over a period of almost half a century. Thank you! Cavalry, usually operating on the flanks of the main battle, were used to mop up opposing infantry put in disarray after they had been subjected to repeated salvos from the archers. Leonidas’ bullish response to Xerxes request was  ‘molōn labe’ or ‘come and get them’ and so battle commenced. -to guide them over a mountain path during the night bringing them out behind the Greek army -gathered 300 Spartans, and a few Greeks, allowing many Greeks to retreat and fight another day What happened … Omissions? Explanation: While the Battle of Thermopylae was technically a defeat for the Greek coalition, it was also a conquest. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. The Greeks would amass over 300 triremes and perhaps their main purpose was to prevent the Persian fleet sailing down the inland coast of Lokris and Boeotia. Web. The result of the battle was, however, indecisive and on news of Leonidas’ defeat, the fleet withdrew to Salamis. As the sea battle failed, the Thermopylae defence had no effect in the course of the war. Having been turned back at Marathon in 490 BC, Persian forces returned to Greece ten years later to avenge their defeat and conquer the peninsula. After three days of holding their own against the Persian king Xerxes I and his vast southward-advancing army, the Greeks were betrayed, and the Persians were able to outflank them. The Spartans were not at Thermopylae to fight for freedom and liberty, they were there with other Greeks to fight for their perceived survival. A plethora of poleis existed throughout Greece since about the eighth century B.C. TOPICS: battle Battle Of Thermopylae Greek Leonidas Persian Thermopylae Xerxes youshouldknow Posted By: Dattatreya Mandal January 23, 2017 Popular culture has been kind to the historical episode of the Battle of Thermopylae, but with romanticized anecdotes intertwined between the actual events that took place before and during the particular military encounter. The Persian king Darius first attacked Greece in 490 BC, but was defeated at the Battle of Marathon by a mainly Athenian force. This offended the proud Greeks greatly; the Athenians went so far as to toss the Persian heralds into a pit, while the Spartans followed suit and tossed them into a well. This battle is known as The Battle at Thermopylae. Describe the legacy of Alexander the Great and how Hellenistic Culture affected Greece and the surrounding lands: In a short paragraph, describe what happened at the battle of Marathon and/or Thermopylae. For the Greeks it was a disaster. However, an unscrupulous traitor was about to tip the balance in favour of the invaders. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. License. before he could lauch another assault on Greece , so it was his son Xerxes that set out to complete his fathers ambition of conquering Greece. Cartwright, Mark. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Xerxes intended to do just that and thus moved toward Thermopylae. Indeed, for this very reason, the Spartans had arrived too late at the earlier Battle of Marathon. After three days resisting the much larger Persian army of Xerxes I, Greek forces were betrayed by Ephialtes and sent into retreat by their leader, Leonidas, who died during a final stand. Pass at Thermopylae was designed to force the Persians to try to outflank the bottleneck by sea, and the Greek fleet was waiting to pounce. The famous Greek shield known as Hoplon was heavier and stronger … In addition to the land forces, the Greek poleis sent a fleet of trireme warships which held position off the coast of Artemision (or Artemisium) on the northern coast of Euboea, 40 nautical miles from Thermopylae. In 2020, Greece celebrates the 2500th anniversary of the Battle of Thermopylae (Hot Gates), when a small force of Greeks stood their ground in one of history’s most famous and important last stands, to delay the advance of the Persian army. 300. When news of the invading force reached Greece, the initial Greek reaction was to send a force of 10,000 hoplites to hold position at the valley of Tempē near Mt. It was here, then, in a 15-metre wide gap with a sheer cliff protecting their left flank and the sea on their right, that the Greeks chose to make a stand against the invading army. The Battle of Marathon. Having somewhere in the region of 80,000 troops at his disposal, the Persian king, who led the invasion in person, first waited four days in expectation that the Greeks would flee in panic. Updates? 300. Meanwhile, the Immortals now entered the fray behind the Greeks who retreated to a high mound behind the Phokian wall. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Many Greek city-states either joined Xerxes or remained neutral, while Athens and Sparta led the resistance with a number of other city-states behind them. The Battle of Thermopylae’s political origins can be traced back to Xerxes’ predecessor, Darius I (the Great), who sent heralds to Greek cities in 491 bce in the hopes of persuading them to accept Persian authority. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. 16 Jan 2021. Although the Persians had enjoyed the upper hand in previous contests during the recent Ionian revolt, the terrain at Thermopylae would better suit Greek warfare. It did however have a morale effect that the Persians were not invincible. The Greek force was very small but was determined to make a … 480 BCE. The Greeks, fielding the largest hoplite army ever seen, won the battle and finally ended Xerxes’ ambitions in Greece. At close quarters, the longer spears, heavier swords, better armour, and rigid discipline of the phalanx formation meant that the Greek hoplites would have all of the advantages, and in the narrow confines of the terrain, the Persians would struggle to make their vastly superior numbers tell. This forced Leonidas to call a war council, at which it was decided that retreating was the best option. This constricted the battlefield and prevented the Persians from utilizing their vast numbers. This is how this battle effected Greek diffusion of people, products and ideas. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Of course, it must also not be forgotten that the Persians did win the battle and, thus in effect, succeeded in “taking” the weapons. The Battle of Thermopylae also served as the inspiration for the film 300 (2006). The Battle of Thermopylae was a famous battle fought between the invading Persians, and the defending Greek city-state alliance. Leonidas. At the Battle of Thermopylae, the Greeks used their famous Phalanx formation in which the men formed a wall of overlapping shields and protruded their spears out from the sides of the shields. The surviving 4,000 or so Greeks fell back to their cities and feared the worst. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. The Battle on the plain of Marathon in September 490 BCE between... Leonidas was the Spartan king who famously led a small band of... Sparta was one of the most important Greek city-states throughout... Xerxes I (l. 519-465, r. 486-465 BCE), also known as Xerxes... One of the most effective and enduring military formations in ancient... A black-figure Calyx-Krater from Attica, c. 530 BCE. Darius’ response to this diplomatic outrage was to launch a naval force of 600 ships and 25,000 men to attack the Cyclades and Euboea, leaving the Persians just one step away from the rest of Greece. The Greeks, though, were far from finished, and despite many states now turning over to the Persians and Athens itself being sacked, a Greek army led by Leonidas’ brother Kleombrotos began to build a defensive wall near Corinth. His forces quickly seized northern Greece and began moving south. Xerxes took advantage of this betrayal and sent part of his army along this path, led by Ephialtes himself. Persia never imposed it's customs, religions, and … Before invading, Xerxes implored the Spartan king Leonidas to surrender his arms. happened about one hundred years before the great philosopher and defender of freedom Aristotle was born, the Greeks still had a concept of defending the city-state, the polis. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Battle of Thermopylae, (480 bce), battle in central Greece at the mountain pass of Thermopylae during the Persian Wars. Favorite Answer. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Greek forces, mostly Spartan, were led by Leonidas. …480, the Greek stand at Thermopylae in August of 480 came to naught, and the Persian land forces marched on Athens, taking and burning the Acropolis. Whatever the exact motives, in 491 BCE Darius sent envoys to call for the Greeks’ submission to Persian rule. Xerxes, on the other hand, had anywhere from 70,000 to 300,000. by Dept. It was Spartan culture, which in many ways, influenced the Spartans ability to stand against the Persians as long as they did. In what ways did the Persians disrupt life for the people of Greece? The two opposing armies were essentially representative of the two approaches to Classical warfare - Persian warfare favoured long-range assault using archers followed up with a cavalry charge, whilst the Greeks favoured heavily-armoured hoplites, arranged in a densely packed formation called the phalanx, with each man carrying a heavy round bronze shield and fighting at close quarters using spears and swords. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Sending the main army in retreat, Leonidas and a small contingent remained behind to resist the advance and were defeated. The Battle of Thermopylae. "Battle of Thermopylae." Early in the morning, the hoplites once more met the enemy, but this time Xerxes could attack from both front and rear and planned to do so but, in the event, the Immortals behind the Greeks were late on arrival. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from The fighting was most intense during two invasions that Persia launched against mainland Greece between 490 and 479. Relevance. Cite This Work Xerxes, who had by then been away…, …Persians attacked the Greeks at Thermopylae for two days but suffered heavy losses. The battle of Thermopylae, and particularly the Spartans' role in it, soon acquired mythical status amongst the Greeks. Sparta. The Persian army arrived at Thermopylae and the Greeks were there waiting. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It marked the beginning of several important Greek victories against the Persians and represented a morale shift among the Greeks. Click here to get an answer to your question ️ How did the Persians defeat the Greek army at Thermopylae? 0 0 1 The Battle of Thermopylae is believed to have been fought in August 480 BC, during the Persian Wars (499 BC-449 BC). Leonidas famously replied, “Come and take them” (“Molon labe”). He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Related Content After reaching the other side, the Persians attacked and destroyed a portion of the Greek army. Only when the Greeks were betrayed did the battle take a detrimental turn for them. The wall was in a state of ruin, but the Spartans made the best repairs they could in the circumstances. The Greek forces included 300 Spartans and their helots with 2,120 Arcadians, 1,000 Lokrians, 1,000 Phokians, 700 Thespians, 400 Corinthians, 400 Thebans, 200 men from Phleious, and 80 Mycenaeans. Athens was evacuated and the Spartans and Corinthians walled off the Peloponnese. With their position now seemingly hopeless, and before their retreat was cut off completely, the bulk of the Greek forces were ordered to withdraw by Leonidas. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The battle of Thermopylae inspired the Greeks into preventing Persia's advance into the European continent. Soon after the battle, the Greeks built a stone lion in honour of those who had died and specifically for the fallen king Leonidas. Indeed, Spartan indifference is epitomised by Dieneces, who, when told that the Persian arrows would be so dense as to darken the sun, replied that in that case the Spartans would have the pleasure of fighting in the shade. Today the Battle of Thermopylae is celebrated as an example of heroic persistence against seemingly impossible odds. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. The Greek resistance tried to halt Persian progress on land at the narrow pass of Thermopylae and at sea nearby in the straits of Artemisium. While the Battle of Thermopylae was technically a defeat for the Greeks, it was also a victory in the long run because it marked the beginning of several important Greek victories against the Persians and boosted the morale of all the Greek city-states. 10 years after the Battle of Marathon and the first, unsuccessful, attempt to subjugate Greece, the Persian Empire under King Xerxes I lunched its second attempt, amassing a … What did the effect of the Persian war have on Greece? Battle of Thermopylae. In 490 BCE Greek forces led by Athens met the Persians in battle at Marathon and defeated the invaders. For two days the Greeks defended against Persian attacks and suffered light losses as they imposed heavy casualties on the Persian army. Although the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 B.C. 95 miles. The Persian cavalry were armed as the foot soldiers, with a bow and an additional two javelins for throwing and thrusting. What is another name for a Greek city-state? The Spartan king, on the third day of the battle, rallied his small force - the survivors from the original Spartan 300, 700 Thespians and 400 Thebans - and made a rearguard stand to defend the pass to the last man in the hope of delaying the Persians progress, in order to allow the rest of the Greek force to retreat or also possibly to await relief from a larger Greek force. And the rest of Greece victories, the Persians were not invincible battle, Xerxes the! 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